10 JavaScript concepts

original link: http://www.javaworld.com/article/3196070/application-development/10-javascript-concepts-nodejs-programmers-must-master.html

1. Immediately invoked function expressions

(function(){
                        // all your code here
                        // ...
            })();

this will immediatlly execute the code

2. Closures

A closure in JavaScript is an inner function that has access to its outer function’s scope, even after the outer function has returned control. A closure makes the variables of the inner function private

var count = (function () {
            var _counter = 0;
            return function () {return _counter += 1;}
})();
count();
count();
count();
// the counter is now 3

3. Prototypes

Every JavaScript function has a prototype property that is used to attach properties and methods. This property is not enumerable. It allows the developer to attach methods or member functions to its objects. JavaScript supports inheritance only through the prototype property. In case of an inherited object, the prototype property points to the object’s parent. A common approach to attach methods to a function is to use prototypes as shown below:

function Rectangle(x, y) {
            this._length = x;
            this._breadth = y;
}

Rectangle.prototype.getDimensions = function () {
            return { length : this._length, breadth : this._breadth };
};

Rectangle.prototype.setDimensions = function (len, bred) {
            this._length = len;
            this._breadth = bred;
};

4. Private properties, using closures

JavaScript lets you define private properties by special technique. By default js don’t provide any private property. We use _ on the variable name as convention to let everyone know that this is private variable.

Defining private properties using closures will help you solve this problem. The member functions that need access to private properties should be defined on the object itself. You can make private properties using closures as shown below:

function Rectangle(_length, _breadth) {
            this.getDimensions = function () {
            return { length : _length, breadth : _breadth };
            };

            this.setDimension = function (len,bred) {
            _length = len;
            _breadth = bred
            };
}

5. The Module pattern

The Module pattern is the most frequently used design pattern in JavaScript for achieving loosely coupled, well-structured code. It allows you to create public and private access levels. One way to achieve a Module pattern is shown below:

var Direction = (function() {
  var _direction = 'forward'

  var changeDirection = function(d) {
            _direction = d;
  }

  return {
            setDirection: function(d) {
            changeDirection(d);
            console.log(_direction);
            }
  };

})();

Direction.setDirection('backward');   // Outputs: 'backward'
console.log(Direction._direction);

6. Hoisting

JavaScript moves variables and function declarations to the top of their scope before code execution. This is called hoisting. Regardless of where you place the declaration of functions and variables in your code, they are moved to the top of their scope by the interpreter.

The priority is given below from higher to lower:

  • Variable assignment
  • Function declaration
  • Variable declarations

x = 5; // Assign 5 to x

elem = document.getElementById(“demo”); // Find an element
elem.innerHTML = x;                     // Display x in the element

var x; // Declare x

Declare Your Variables At the Top !

7. Currying

A technique using partial evaluation. Currying refers to the process of transforming a function with multiple arity into the same function with less arity. The curried effect is achieved by binding some of the arguments to the first function invoke, so that those values are fixed for the next invocation.

var myFirstCurry = function(word) {
  return function(user) {
            return [word , ", " , user].join("");
  };
};

var HelloUser = myFirstCurry("Hello");
HelloUser("Rahul"); // Output: "Hello, Rahul"

The original curried function can be called directly by passing each of the parameters in a separate set of parentheses one after the other as shown below:

myFirstCurry("Hey, wassup!")("Rahul"); // Output: "Hey, wassup!, Rahul"

8. The apply, call, and bind methods

It’s imperative for any JavaScript developer to understand the difference between the call, apply, and bind methods.

Of the three, call is the easiest. It’s the same as invoking a function while specifying its context. Here’s an example:

var user = {
     name: "Rahul Mhatre",
     whatIsYourName: function() {
     console.log(this.name);
     }
};

user.whatIsYourName(); // Output: "Rahul Mhatre",
var user2 = {
     name: "Neha Sampat"
};

user.whatIsYourName.call(user2); // Output: "Neha Sampat"

apply is nearly the same as call. The only difference is that you pass arguments as an array and not separately. Arrays are easier to manipulate in JavaScript, opening a larger number of possibilities for working with functions. Here is an example using apply and call:

var user = {
     greet: "Hello!",
     greetUser: function(userName) {
     console.log(this.greet + " " + userName);
     }
};

var greet1 = {
     greet: "Hola"
};

user.greetUser.call(greet1,"Rahul") // Output: "Hola Rahul"

user.greetUser.apply(greet1,["Rahul"]) // Output: "Hola Rahul"

The bind method allows you to pass arguments to a function without invoking it. A new function is returned with arguments bounded preceding any further arguments. Here is an example:

           var user = {
                greet: "Hello!",
                greetUser: function(userName) {
                console.log(this.greet + " " + userName);
                }
           };

           var greetHola = user.greetUser.bind({greet: "Hola"});
           var greetBonjour = user.greetUser.bind({greet: "Bonjour"});

           greetHola("Rahul") // Output: "Hola Rahul"
           greetBonjour("Rahul") // Output: "Bonjour Rahul"

9. Memoization

Memoization is an optimization technique that speeds up function execution by storing results of expensive operations and returning the cached results when the same set of inputs occur again. JavaScript objects behave like associative arrays, making it easy to implement memoization in JavaScript. For example, we can convert a recursive factorial function into a memoized factorial function as shown below:

function memoizeFunction(func) {
  var cache = {};
  return function() {
            var key = arguments[0];
            if(cache[key]) {
            return cache[key];
            }
            else {
            var val = func.apply(this, arguments);
            cache[key] = val;
            return val;
            }
  };
}

var fibonacci = memoizeFunction(function(n) {
  return (n === 0 || n === 1) ? n : fibonacci(n - 1) + fibonacci(n - 2);
});

10. Method overloading

Method overloading allows multiple methods to have the same name but different arguments. The compiler or interpreter determines which function to call based on the number of arguments passed. Method overloading is not directly supported in JavaScript. But you can achieve something very much like it as shown below:

function overloadMethod(object, name, fn){

            if(!object._overload){
            object._overload = {};
            }

            if(!object._overload[name]){
            object._overload[name] = {};
            }

            if(!object._overload[name][fn.length]){
            object._overload[name][fn.length] = fn;
            }

              object[name] = function() {
                        if(this._overload[name][arguments.length])
                        return this._overload[name][arguments.length].apply(this, arguments);
              };
}

function Students(){
  overloadMethod(this, "find", function(){
            // Find a student by name
  });

  overloadMethod(this, "find", function(first, last){
            // Find a student by first and last name
  });

}

var students = new Students();
students.find(); // Finds all
students.find("Rahul"); // Finds students by name
students.find("Rahul", "Mhatre"); // Finds users by first and last name

How to speed up the maven builds

This article has good tips how to increase the build time using maven:

https://zeroturnaround.com/rebellabs/your-maven-build-is-slow-speed-it-up/

 

I’ve addapted it for the IntelliJ idea IDE:

In short, for IntelliJ Idea change the following

in parameters add(inside the Run/Debug Configurations):

install -DskipTests=true -offline

it’s better to use install instead of the clean install because most of the time clean is not required, -DskipTests=true will skip the tests and -offline won’t download any snapshots that already exists.

in General, in Threads (-T option) add 1C, this means that each core will dedicate one thread  for building

In Runner, in the VM options add:

-XX:+TieredCompilation -XX:TieredStopAtLevel=1

this is the Java VM options for speeding up the build

Alternatively, you can add the only project that you actually need

Ex: instead of install -DskipTests=true -offline use

install  –pl YOUR_MODULE -am -DskipTests=true -offline

pl makes Maven build only specified modules and not the whole project.

am makes Maven figure out what modules out target depends on and build them too.

JS: Closure

A closure is an inner function that has access to the outer (enclosing) function’s variables—scope chain.

The closure has three scope chains: it has access to its own scope (variables defined between its curly brackets), it has access to the outer function’s variables, and it has access to the global variables.

The inner function has access not only to the outer function’s variables, but also to the outer function’s parameters

You create a closure by adding a function inside another function.
A Basic Example of Closures in JavaScript:

function showName (firstName, lastName) {
var nameIntro = “Your name is “;
// this inner function has access to the outer function’s variables, including the parameter
function makeFullName () {
return nameIntro + firstName + ” ” + lastName;
}
return makeFullName ();
}
showName (“Michael”, “Jackson”); // Your name is Michael Jackson

Closures are used extensively in Node.js; they are workhorses in Node.js’ asynchronous, non-blocking architecture. Closures are also frequently used in jQuery and just about every piece of JavaScript code you read.

function celebrityID () {
var celebrityID = 999;
// We are returning an object with some inner functions
// All the inner functions have access to the outer function’s variables
return {
getID: function () {
// This inner function will return the UPDATED celebrityID variable
// It will return the current value of celebrityID, even after the changeTheID function changes it
return celebrityID;
},
setID: function (theNewID) {
// This inner function will change the outer function’s variable anytime
celebrityID = theNewID;
}}}

var mjID = celebrityID (); // At this juncture, the celebrityID outer function has returned.
mjID.getID(); // 999
mjID.setID(567); // Changes the outer function’s variable
mjID.getID(); // 567: It returns the updated celebrityId variable

To outcan can use console.log(mjID.getID()); then press F12 in the Chrome to see the console

For the better Enterprise solutions!

I’ve decided to slightly divert from my Java SE certification preparation and research more about Spring framework. SF is chosen because it fits to be enterprise engine and it’s has good support among the developers. Beside that Oracle is borrowed the concept of Dependency injection from the Spring and implemented it in it’s own EJB.

Since I’m looking for job now, I might as well start building the web app on SF so that I can show the working prototype to employers.

I’ve completed couple spring started guides and uploaded one to the cloud:

http://ec2-54-169-251-194.ap-southeast-1.compute.amazonaws.com:8080/greeting

My other rest services, not Spring though:

Rest Post service via Jersey:

http://ec2-54-169-58-9.ap-southeast-1.compute.amazonaws.com:8080/RestServices/fileUpload.html

Rest Get service that returns JSON via Jackson and data taken using Hibernate:

http://ec2-54-169-58-9.ap-southeast-1.compute.amazonaws.com:8080/ServiceGetMenu/rest/menu/get

 

Programming: Silly mistakes

This post will capture all the silly mistakes I’ve done so that I won’t repeat them again.

 

  1. While trying to add objects to the object’s list I had issue where all the elements(aka objects) were actually last object that I’ve added.

Code snippet with error:

List<String> characterImage = new ArrayList<String>();
for (int i = 0; i < numberOfCharacters; i++) {
    Character ch = new Character(characterImage);
    for (int j = 0; j < numberOfRows; j++) {
       characterImage.add(sc.next());
 }
 characters.add(ch);
 }

The correct solution should look like this:

List;String> characterImage;
 for (int i = 0; i < numberOfCharacters; i++) {
    characterImage = new ArrayList<String>();
    Character ch = new Character(characterImage);
    for (int j = 0; j < numberOfRows; j++) {
       characterImage.add(sc.next());
 }
 characters.add(ch);
 }

Obvious error, was that characterImage list haven’t been re-created for new object of Character, meaning we’ve been adding same list latest elements to the Character object.